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We present the analysis of a Love-wave dispersion study performed across Turkey and the surroundings. Group velocity dispersion curves were obtained from the local and regional earthquakes recorded at both permanent and temporary stations operated in the region.
Love-wave group velocity maps in the period range of 10—50 s were computed using a tomographic inversion method. The study shows the existence of significantly different crustal types in the area. The group velocity anomalies are associated with the major geological structures in the region.
Low group velocities at shorter periods 10—20 s are observed in the Loved your belt in Afyon sedimentary basins, the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The central Anatolia exhibits uniform Loved your belt in Afyon distribution indicating more homogenous crust. The Isparta angle is marked by a wedge-shaped low group velocity anomaly.
The low velocities observed in the Isparta angle are related to crustal thickening and subduction-related complex. At larger periods 40—50 s the Anatolian block shows low and uniform group velocity distribution while its surroundings display higher group velocities with the exception of the eastern Mediterranean region.
Their large amplitudes with relatively low attenuation and long propagation paths have provided significant contribution to our knowledge of the Earth's upper-mantle and crustal structure. One-dimensional earth models have been routinely obtained along great circle paths using the dispersive nature of surface waves Oliver ; Knopoff while long-period surface waves have been the main source of the observation for determining the tomographic image of the mantle.
During the last decade with the availability of high-quality digital broad-band seismic data we have seen a rapid progress in imaging the structure of crust and upper mantle Loved your belt in Afyon increasing resolutions. Studies at local and regional scales are now common for regions with a good coverage of stations and earthquakes.
Phase- and group-velocity distributions obtained from dispersive surface waves correlate well with the main tectonic belts and geological units providing better constrains on their geometry and relation to the regional tectonics Levshin et al. Turkey and the surrounding areas have been the target of many geophysical studies due to its active tectonics and high seismicity rate. Continuous regional deformation along the seismically active boundaries contains diverse structures such as suture zones, metamorphic core complexes and young orogens Stampfli and references therein.
Loved your belt in Afyon variations exist on the tectonic styles and crustal structures. Until recently, investigations on the crustal thickness and seismic velocities used sparse distribution of seismic stations in the region e. Temporary experiments along with the existing data from the permanent seismic stations provided more details on the lithospheric structure and composition e. Some other works have also been performed in the region at greater scales to estimate group- and phase-velocity variations e.
In this study, we obtained Love-wave group velocity maps for 10—50 s periods using local and regional earthquakes. We used available data from the broad-band stations operated between and in Turkey and the surrounding regions. We analysed earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4. Fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves at more than broad-band stations along 13 paths were computed using Multiple-filter analysis MFA; Dziewonski et al.
Approximately 25 per cent of the paths for Love waves provided reliable group velocity measurements. The group velocity maps were interpreted in relation to the geological and tectonic observations in the region. Turkey is an east—west trending segment of the Alpine—Himalayan orogenic belt and located on the boundary between Gondwana in the south and Laurasia in the north. Within this belt different continental and oceanic assemblages related to the opening and closure of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic oceanic basins can be found.
Although the geometry and evolution of the Tethys Ocean is still in debate, there is a consensus regarding the presence of Paleotethys on the north and Neotethys on the south both rifted from the Gondwana margin Stampfli The present tectonic regime of Turkey follows closure and the destruction of the Neo-Tethyan oceans Fig. Tectonic setting of Turkey and surrounding areas; Abbreviations: Purple volcano signs show Neogene and quaternary volcanism. Red triangles show the sutures and earlier subduction zones.
The northern Neotethys is located between the Loved your belt in Afyon continent in the north and the Anatolian—Tauride Platform in the south. Two major E—W trending ophiolite belts indicate the closure and destruction of Neotethys Stampfli The Strandja, Istanbul and Sakarya zones show similar geological patterns with Laurasia and Loved your belt in Afyon referred as the Pontides.
The IZ is characterized by a thick Ordovician to Carboniferous sedimentary sequence, which rests unconformably on a Precambrian metamorphic basement. It is bordered by the Strandja massif in the west, separated along the Intra-Pontide suture from the SZ in the south. The A—T block forms the main part of the southern Turkey. This unit has a Paleozoic stratigraphy similar to the Arabian platform and Gondwana. There is a massive ophiolite and accretionary complex accumulation over this block.
The A—T block can be described in three regional metamorphic complexes: The central Anatolia displays a transitional character between the extensional tectonic regime of the western Anatolia and Loved your belt in Afyon strike-slip tectonic regime of the eastern Anatolia. In the central Anatolia, the KM consists of metamorphic and voluminous granitic rocks. These metamorphic rocks Loved your belt in Afyon Cretaceous age constitute a coherent metasedimentary sequence of granulite, gneiss, micashist, metaquarzite, marble and calc-silicate rocks.
The accretionary complex and the metamorphic rocks, which are intruded by granitic rocks, cover Loved your belt in Afyon areas in the KM. The most prominent geological feature of the region is the widespread volcanism.
The origin of the volcanism is considered to be arc related from the north-dipping oceanic slab of African Plate Innocenti et Loved your belt in Afyon. The Arabian Platform consists of marine, sedimentary succession accumulated from early Cambrian to middle Miocene time. For this reason, the various ophiolit fragments were transported into the basin. The Black Sea is composed of two deep basins Fig. The eastern Black Sea basin, which is underlain by thinned continental crust, has 12 km thickness of sediments Nikishin et al.
These basins are separated by the Andrusov Ridge that is formed from continental crust and overlain by 5—6 km thickness of sedimentary cover Robinson Topography, major fault lines and crustal thickness of Turkey Loved your belt in Afyon surrounding areas Mooney et al.
The red triangles indicate the locations of the broad-band stations used for the construction dispersion curves in Fig. A waveform database for the surface wave investigations was formed from the permanent and temporary digital broad-band stations in the region between and Fig. The network has Loved your belt in Afyon continuously upgraded since and the number of broad-band stations has exceeded in The majority of the stations record at periods s or higher. Distribution of earthquakes circles and seismic stations triangles.
The different colours indicate Rough sexchat conversatiob stations from various networks dark blue: The earthquakes with magnitudes greater 4. Data from several portable deployments were also included in the study. A temporary network with 29 broad-band stations operated between and during the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment Sandvol et al.
Data from local networks, which have been operating in the various regions of Turkey, also contributed to the database. As a result, the total number of stations exceeds and distributed non-uniformly throughout the region. The station coverage is dense in the Marmara Loved your belt in Afyon and the eastern Anatolia while the central Anatolia, Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean regions are poorly sampled.
We selected earthquakes that occurred between and with magnitudes greater than 4. The event distribution is Loved your belt in Afyon non-uniform. Fewer earthquakes were included from Caucases and Iran. The earthquakes along NAF and EAF have mostly strike-slip mechanisms while the majority of the events from the western Anatolia and Aegean have normal and strike-slip mechanisms.
The range of the recording distances used for the surface wave analysis was between and km. The surface wave dispersion curves were computed in several steps. The first step involved visual check of the waveform data to insure reasonable signal-to-noise ratios and eliminate problematic recordings. Radial and transverse components Loved your belt in Afyon computed by rotating NS and EW components into backazimuth directions.
We obtained Love waves from transverse components and Rayleigh waves from vertical components. The instrument responses were removed from the selected waveforms and the waveforms were decimated to 5 samples per second. We employed both MFA Dziewonski et al. Rather than attributing the energy to the centre of the applied frequency and time windows, it is attributed to a location within the window that corresponds to the centre of gravity. Objective of the method is to improve the precision of group velocity measurements with energy reassignment in time-frequency domain Pedersen et al.
RMFA provides better-constrained dispersion curves than classical MFA that shows smeared image of group velocities especially at higher periods.
To test the accuracy of group velocity estimates we used both synthetic and recorded waveforms. We used discrete wavenumber summation method Herrmann to compute the synthetic waveform.
The dispersion curve computed from the same model is also shown in Fig. The computed group velocities using RMFA is in good agreement with the dispersion curve calculated from the crustal model see Fig. Analysis of waveforms using reassigned multiple-filter technique RMFA. The black dots on the top of the image show the group velocity picks. RMFA left-hand side for the transverse component of the synthetic waveform right-hand side computed from the thick crust model blue line shown in Fig.
The Loved your belt in Afyon dots on the top of the image show the computed group velocities from the thick crust model. The colours indicate normalized energy at each period. Two dispersion curves calculated from the two crustal models were used to guide the picks Fig. The first earth model with thick crust was determined from a simple grid search as explained above while the second earth model corresponding thin crust was obtained from Akyol et al.
Using the group velocity picks we applied velocity filtering to the waveforms Herrmann and recalculated RMFA of the Loved your belt in Afyon waveforms. Group velocity picks were revised and improved. Assuming that the wave follows the great circle arc between the source and the receiver, the group velocity for a given period was estimated by dividing the epicentral distance by the group arrival time.
Standard deviations of group velocities were estimated from 95 per cent of group velocities. Dispersion curves right-hand side calculated from the end member crustal models left-hand side appropriate for the region Blue: After applying a Woman sex in Svay Rieng of selection criteria approximately one forth of the paths provided reliable dispersion measurements for Love waves.
The elimination of the dispersion curves was based on:
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