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Continued exploration for metal resources requires extending the search for undiscovered mineralization into the third dimension, especially in areas of thick cover Cameron et al. Geochemical exploration for base- and precious-metal mineralization has become increasingly focused on the use of relatively weak leaches of soils, sediments, or till that overly mineralization. In many cases, however, the utility Thailand milfs hookups geochemistry in exploring for deeply buried mineralization is hampered by a lack of understanding of the processes by which ore-associated species migrate through overburden on meaningful timescales.
Many mechanisms have been postulated to account for surface geochemical anomalies, including upward diffusion, advection, electrochemical cells, vapour-transport, barometric pumping, and seismic pumping Hamilton ; Cameron et al. Deep Penetrating Geochemistry Phase II 28 company sponsors was initiated inand Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata on field and laboratory studies in a variety of geological and climatic terranes in Ontario, Nevada, and northern Chile.
The Ontario study additional support from the Ontario Geological Survey made substantial advances in developing methods for detecting mineralization under thick clay cover and understanding the processes that created these anomalies Hamilton et al. Work on the Mike deposit, Nevada, was described by Cameron et al.
Studies in northern Chile looked at a number of porphyry copper deposits, and emphasised the Spence deposit. Display large image of Figure 1. Deep Penetrating Geochemistry Phase I suggested that in a hyper-arid, tectonically active terrane such as northern Chile, movement of water by seismic activity should be a viable mechanism for the production of surficial geochemical Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata Cameron The DPG Phase II research indicated that, not only was seismic pumping a Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata mechanism, but that it might also provide an alternative explanation for the formation of Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata [Cu2Cl OH 3], the most characteristic supergene oxide mineral of northern Chile.
Therefore, further work was initiated to better constrain the origin and timing of formation of atacamite. Hyperaridity is pervasive throughout the Coastal Cordillera and Central Depression, changing to less arid conditions with increasing altitude and rainfall in the Precordillera.
The Coastal Cordillera is a Carboniferous—Early Triassic magmatic arc that contains numerous copper deposits, of which the largest is the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos deposit Ramirez et al.
The basement of the Central Depression contains Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary—volcanic sequences, the former comprising rocks of both marine and non-marine origin, and including evaporites. From the late Oligocene through the middle Miocene, a large volume of sediment sourced from the Precordillera was deposited in the Central Depression, obscuring much of the basement; most prominent of these Tertiary sediments are early to middle Miocene piedmont gravels.
The Precordillera consists of Triassic to Eocene fault-bounded blocks. These deposits are structurally controlled. During the structural and geomorphological evolution of the Precordillera, some deposits have been exhumed and exposed at the surface. Copper was extracted from Chuquicamata in pre-Inca times, and El Abra lies near the summit of a mountain. Conversely, some systems, such as Radomiro Tomic, Spence and Gaby Sur, are in structural depressions covered by thick gravels.
Most exploration is now focused on methods of detecting deposits lying under this gravel cover. Display large image of Figure 2. These data included soils collected at m intervals over the Spence deposit, soon after its discovery by Rio Algom in The Spence deposit, covered by 50 to m of gravel, was discovered by systematic Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata drilling along favourable structural trends.
The surface at Spence lacks the non-pedogenic gypcrete crust that is widespread throughout the Atacama Desert because it had been removed by sporadic sheet flood erosion. A lapilli tuff layer in gypcrete Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata Mantos Blancos was dated by the K—Ar biotite method at 2.
If this timing is relevant to the Spence deposit, it provides a maximum age for the former erosional surface. The presence of the three halogens suggested that saline groundwater had reached the surface. Display large image of Figure 3. These include surveys over the Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata de Cobre porphyry prospect adjacent to Lomas Bayas, and over the Radomiro Tomic deposit.
Two soil geochemical traverses by Noranda over the Mansa Mina deposit provided the best clue to the origins of the Enzyme Leach SM anomalies. Mansa Mina Sillitoe et al. About 50 m of gravel overlie Web dating sites in orlando Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata west of the fault, and gravel thickness increases to several hundred metres east of the fault.
Samples from above, and immediately east of the fault, are strongly anomalous in several elements, including Mo Fig. Enrichment Swing Parties in Semnan were determined for the most anomalous sample on Line B Fig. The location of the anomalies suggests that they are related to the fault. Vapour transport is not an option, because Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata principal constituent of the anomalies, NaCl, is non-volatile.
Capillary transport of groundwater was also rejected as a significant mechanism for metal transport at the Spence deposit. Maximum depths for capillary rise are 0. The most likely mechanism was identified as forcing of basement waters to the surface during earthquakes Cameron et al.
In inter-seismic periods, extension in basement rocks can cause cracks to open, drawing in water. During an Dating website prices, cracks close under compression, expelling water, which migrates to the faults and then to the surface Muir-Wood Because of limited permeability in basement rocks, migration towards faults is slow; thus, unusual flows of waters in springs, streams and rivers persist for weeks or months after an earthquake.
For example, in the desert areas of Iran, after earthquakes, surface soils have become waterlogged along fault lines Tchalenko ; Tchalenko and Berberian Northern Chile is a region of high seismicity and, although the Atacama Desert does occasionally receive some rainfall, which can redistribute elements at the surface, the rate of erosion is mostly too low to disperse anomalies derived from seismic-related flooding once they have formed.
Display large image of Figure 4. Display large image of Figure 5. Porphyry intrusion and hypogene mineralization in andesite host rocks occurred along a north-northeast axis during the Paleocene. Dating of alunite shows that supergene alteration extended over a long period from 44 to at least 21 Ma Rowland and Clark Copper minerals are atacamite and brochantite in the oxide zone; chalcocite, covellite, and pyrite in the enriched zone; and chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, tennantite, and pyrite in the hypogene zone.
Spence Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata reserves of Mt grading 1. The topography of the deposit area controlled the variable thickness 50 to m of the gravel cover and the location of the water table, which is within the basal gravels to the north and within the oxide zone to the south Fig. The gravels are indurated and have a fine-grained matrix that renders them impermeable, except where fractured or where layers of better-sorted material occur near their base.
South of the hypogene deposit, exotic copper oxide minerals are present in the basal gravels Fig. Details of sampling, sample preparation, and analytical methods are given by Leybourne and Cameron a. Fresh water flows into the deposit from the northeast and mixes with saline water found within and down-flow of the deposit Fig. Comparison of our Spence groundwater data with F 18 O data for precipitation in the Andes Aravena et al.
The saline waters within and down-flow of the Spence deposit are interpreted to be formation basinal brine water flowing up from basement, presumably along fracture zones identified during drilling. Inflow of formation waters into the Spence deposit exceeds that of meteoric water, because saline water is dominant down-flow of the deposit. Display large image of Figure 6. Display large image of Figure 7. Among those that show the greatest differences are Br, I Fig.
Bromine and iodine were earlier identified as major constituents of the anomalies developed in gravels above some copper porphyry deposits in northern Chile. The presence of these halogens is interpreted as evidence for generation of the anomalies by formation waters of deep, basement origin that have been pumped to the surface along faults or fracture zones.
Copper is not dispersed away from the deposit, because it is readily Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata to Fe- Mn- and Aloxy-hydroxides, and may form secondary Cu minerals Cameron and Ley-bourne Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata Leybourne and Cameron In contrast, elements having filtered to unfiltered ratios near unity Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata not present in particulate form.
These elements, Mo, S, Re, Br, I, and Se, dissolve in the weakly acidic to mildly alkaline groundwater as anions, which are not adsorbed by Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata charged oxy-hydroxides.
Accordingly, Mo and other anions are dispersed in ground-water away from the deposit. Molybdenum is a ubiquitous minor constituent of copper porphyry mineralization. Because of its relatively high mobility under moderately oxidizing conditions Stollenwerk ; Hodge et al.
For example, Mo has dispersed 65 km westward of the El Abra deposit to create intense Mo anomalies in soils Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata the Central Depression Leybourne and Cameron b.
Display large image of Figure 8. Molybdenum and Br anomalies identify two locations where saline water of deep origin has reached the surface Fig. Trenching at these two locations showed the indurated gravels to be cut by vertical fractures, whereas a background location to the west of the deposit lacked fractures Cameron et al. As saline waters were pumped to the surface during earthquakes, they carried dissolved and adsorbed Cu to the surface above the deposit, but this did not happen at the Eastern Fracture Zone, where drilling has shown the basement rocks to be barren.
Molybdenum is anomalous above both fracture zones Fig. Given the mobility of Mo, Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata suggests that Mo-bearing mineralization is present up-gradient from these locations. Molybdenum and other mobile porphyry indicator elements thus provide a method of exploration using groundwater. This is possible because supergene-enriched porphyry deposits lie along the basement unconformity, above which the basal gravels, as at Spence, commonly represent an aquifer that can readily be sampled during mineral exploration.
Display large image of Figure 9. Display large image of Figure Mimicking their behaviour in groundwater, elements dissolving as anions, such as Se, are moved to depth Fig. By normal soil processes, Cu is then incorporated into different minerals, notably carbonate Cameron et al. Part of the objective of the CAMIRO program was to compare the effectiveness of different selective leaches by measuring the anomaly-to-background contrast for each leach.
In Chile, at the Spence, Gaby Sur and Mansa Mina deposits, all soil samples were analyzed using up to five selective leaches plus an aqua regia leach. Whereas the Enzyme Leach SM equivalent to a water-soluble metals leach yields large anomalies over Spence, leaches that dissolve the carbonate minerals, such as ammonium acetate and MMI TM -A, provide greater anomaly contrast Cameron et al.
The profile for Cu Fig. Supergene enrichment by meteoric waters therefore occurred over an extended period, starting around 44 Ma.
It has been assumed that supergene oxide assemblages that formed prior to the onset of hyperaridity have been preserved since that time. However, a corollary of our hypothesis of seismic pumping of groundwater to surface through mineralized rock is that water-deposit interaction, and resultant supergene and exotic mineralization processes, may not have ceased. Cupric hydroxy assemblages re-equilibrate rapidly within days or weeks when solution compositions change Woods and Garrels Northern Chile is unique in having atacamite [Cu2Cl OH 3], which requires Cl-rich saline water for its formation, as a component of the oxide zone of many porphyry copper and other copper deposit types Fig.
Aside from northern Chile, its most characteristic occurrence is on the sea floor, where it forms as a product of weathering of copper sulfides Hannington Elsewhere, because Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata is rapidly dissolved or replaced by other copper minerals when it is exposed to meteoric water, atacamite is rare. The deposit forms a basement hill covered by piedmont gravels, which vary in thickness from 30 m to m. A tuff near the top of the Non subscription online dating in Chuquicamata was dated at 9.
When the photograph Fig. In a zone 50 m below the water table, atacamite has been removed, and replaced by other copper minerals Cuadra and Rojas
We do not have access to the details contained within either structural of Cerros de Paqui should leave the missing piece of Chuquicamata. in my life came when my mum was diagnosed with Non Hodgkins Lymphoma. .I joined an internet dating site and after a number of unsuitable dates and after chap called Michael, he sent me back an email entitled “Chuquicamata”. View · Subscribe Related studies · Pay-per-view · Directories · Online forums · Teaching files . Copper was extracted from Chuquicamata in pre-Inca times, and El Abra lies The surface at Spence lacks the non-pedogenic gypcrete crust that is . Dating of alunite shows that supergene alteration extended over a long .