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Members of the clade were previously classified in sections LeprophoraNycterium and Lathyrocarpumand were not thought to be closely related. The group is sister to the species-rich monophyletic Old World clade of spiny solanums.
The species of the group have an amphitropical distribution, with three species in Mexico and the southwestern United States and three species in Argentina. Solanum elaeagnifolium occurs in both North and South America, and is a noxious invasive weed in dry areas worldwide.
Members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and this variability has led to much synonymy, particularly in the widespread S. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, relationships and ecology of Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez species and provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy including designations of lectotypes and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species.
Previamente, los miembros del clado estuvieron agrupados en Slut in Victoria secciones LeprophoraNycterium y Lathyrocarpum porque se pensaba que no estaban estrechamente relacionados. The highest diversity of both groups and species is in tropical South America, concentrated in a circle around the Amazon Basin see Knapp bbut significant diversity occurs in various parts of the Old World.
Until the 21 st century, the taxonomy of Solanum was largely limited to rearrangements of infrageneric taxa, species-level treatments of smaller groups within the genus, and floristic works. The large size of Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez and its poorly understood infrageneric structure has meant that Solanum taxonomy proceeded in a piecemeal fashion until relatively recently and the genus acquired a reputation of being intractable.
An electronic monographic treatment of the entire genus, Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez species and species groups added as they are completed, is available online in the web resource Solanaceae Source http: This treatment is part of that collaborative effort.
The Solanum elaeagnifolium species group is part of this large group, and within that, is sister to the monophyletic Old World clade see Vorontsova et al. Dunal treated both species as members of his section Leprophora Dunal, along with S. A year later, Dunal described S. Bentham recognised the similarity of his S. Exploration of the western United States along with the trade in seeds between European botanic gardens led to the description of many synonyms of the extremely variable species S.
Other species placed by him in this group were S. The Old World species with heteromorphic anthers do not form a monophyletic group either Vorontsova et al. In floristic works S. Description of the Argentine endemics Hot horney women in Astana. Hunziker suggested that S. Morton, both now recognised as members of the Carolinense clade section LathyrocarpumWahlert et al. Chiarini recognised the similarities of S.
All of the members of this small species group were only recognised as being related as the result of molecular phylogenetics Levin et al. Whalen suggested that S. In his treatment of groups of New World solanums Nee placed S. In combined analyses using plastid and nuclear markers S. Solanum homalospermum was recovered as a member of the Elaeagnifolium clade by Wahlert et al. Trichome morphology representative of that found in members of the Elaeagnifolium clade.
Members of the S. The plants are usually less than 1 m and rarely exceed 2 m tall, although label data indicate S. Due to their underground stems, plants are often found in dense colonies, often in disturbed areas see below. The roots of S. Only the vertical underground parts are thus thickened, the horizontal spreading stems rhizomes are not corky and thickened.
The stems of all members of the group are variably prickly; this variability is most pronounced in S. Prickles and their morphology are described in detail below.
Prickly and non-prickly morphs of the same species have often been described as different species or forms, leading to much synonymy. Vegetative growth is initially monopodial, but with the onset of flowering, becomes sympodial.
The inflorescence is developmentally terminal, and stem continuation is initiated in the axil of the leaf below each inflorescence. In some cases, when the axes of Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez units are fused, the inflorescences appear to originate laterally from the middle of an internode; and when growth of the axes is suppressed, the leaves appear paired geminate at a node Danert All of the members of the S.
Leaf morphology in subgenus Leptostemonum is very diverse, not only among groups of species, but also within groups and even within individuals Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez a single species. The highly variable size, shape, and lobing of leaves are often the first characters to be noticed by herbarium taxonomists, and attributing undue importance to this variability is one of the causes of excessive synonymy.
All members of the S. Leaves on pre-reproductive shoots are usually more lobed than those of reproductive shoots; this is common in many spiny solanums see Vorontsova and Knapp Some populations of S. Leaf Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez also varies with season and environmental conditions; plants collected in the wet season or from wetter areas always have larger leaves than those from drier microhabitats or that were collected in the dry season.
In common with the rest of the Leptostemonum clade, species in the S. Minute simple trichomes papillae are also present, usually on the new growth. Trichomes are generally similar throughout the plant in these species, but pubescence density is usually greater on leaf undersides. Stellate trichomes in the group can be characterized as one of three types: Solanum elaeagnifolium is characterised by its lepidote pubescence, but some individuals of S.
The basal cells of some of the lepidote trichomes in S. Solanum homalospermum Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez midpoints equal to or longer than the rays, while other taxa usually have reduced midpoints.
Solanum mortonii has multangulate trichomes on all parts. In herbarium specimens, the trichomes of all these species are pale grey, giving the plants a silvery cast. On live plants, the trichomes of S. Elaeagnaceaethe Russian olive but trichomes of S.
Solanum mortonii has whitish grey trichomes that are much denser on the leaf undersurfaces, making the leaves strongly discolorous see Fig. Flowers of members of the Elaeagnifolium clade. A Solanum elaeagnifoliumwith divergent anthers of approximately equal size and shape Argentina, Mendoza, Knapp et al.
Photographs A, D, E by S. Knapp; B, F by F. Chiarini; C by Eugene Sturla. Fruits of members of the Elaeagnifolium clade. Habitats of members of the Elaeagnifolium clade. A Solanum elaeagnifoliumold stems with persistent berries and young new stems from underground rhizomes Argentina, Mendoza, Knapp et al.
Prickles in Solanum are epidermal in origin and are thought to be modified multicellular stellate trichomes with layers of elongate and lignified cells Whalen The common origin of trichomes and prickles can be observed on young stems of where some trichomes develop longer lignified stalks that become prickles with an apical stellate trichome that is later deciduous see for example Fig.
Often prickles can themselves bear trichomes, reflecting their epidermal nature. The development of prickles in Solanum has not been studied in detail in any species. Prickles can occur on all above-ground parts of a plant except the corolla and the fruit. This plasticity has led Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez much taxonomic confusion Jaeger Where prickles are present they are usually straight and acicular, but the stem prickles of S.
On an individual plant prickles are usually uniform throughout the plant. Solanum Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez and S. As with all species of Solanumthe inflorescence in members of the S. The basic inflorescence, Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez in all other species of Solanumis a scorpioid cyme that is branched or unbranched. In Solanum the inflorescence Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez from the tip with each apical meristem producing multiple flowers in a proliferating manner Lippmann et al.
Inflorescences of members of the S. In strongly heteromorphic species S. Members of the Elaeagnifolium clade have 5-merous flowers like most other species of Solanumbut occasional tetramerous individuals do occur.
Staminate flowers of S. The degree to which the calyx is accrescent in fruit varies in the species of the group, and can be a useful identification character see Fig. The calyx is not markedly accrescent in S. We have seen some specimens of S. Like the calyces, corollas of members of the Elaeagnifolium clade are most often 5-merous.
Corollas are stellate, and usually divided about halfway to the base, the lobes are deltate to triangular with copious to sparse interpetalar tissue, and are usually spreading at anthesis see Fig. The corollas of S. Solanum houstoniihowever, has markedly zygomorphic corollas, with the two lower lobes enlarged relative to the upper ones see Fig.
Staminate flowers S normally have slightly larger corollas than hermaphrodites H length: Carbonell, measurements from field individualsand are more zygomorphic. The abaxial surfaces of the corolla lobes are densely pubescent with stellate trichomes where they are exposed in the bud; the interpetalar tissue in the sinuses is glabrous on Prostitute in Ingeniero Guillermo N Juarez surfaces in all species. In exceptionally prickly individuals of S.
audio-visual manufacturing in North America 1 Sandra . some observers described in Ciudad Juárez around Some experts. Solanum elaeagnifolium occurs in both North and South America, and is a noxious invasive Formosa: Matacos, Ingeniero G.N. Juárez. del Milenio—and the Juárez cartels, the Amezcua Contreras brothers' cartel, and the Pedro 59This was what Darío Betancourt called the mafia sub-center of the north. Betancourt, Dario, .. ing houses of prostitution and striptease joints. .. there is the case of Guillermo Pérez Alzate, alias Pablo Sevillano, the former.