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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and SocietyRoutledge.
A media scandal occurs when actions and events that challenge Prostitute in Shaowu social values or legal norms are narrativized by the media, producing public discussion of controversial issues with consequences ranging from confirmation of the status quo to changes in public policy Lull and Hinerman These actions and events acquire additional media currency when signifiers of human difference, such as ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and social status, are involved ibid.: Prostitution is therefore a highly newsworthy topic, especially in the PRC where it is a relatively recent and proscribed yet rampant phenomenon.
It offers the necessary background information for understanding the nexus between these three areas and outlines the organization of Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and Society. The final section introduces the subject matter and conclusions of the other chapters in this book, which examine media coverage of specific actions and events relating to prostitution, including: An examination of media coverage of prostitution-related scandals demonstrates that prostitution is not only widely debated in present-day China, but also that these public discussions have ramifications for some of the key social, legal and political issues affecting citizens of the PRC.
These issues include social vulnerability, sexual exploitation, rule of law, civil rights, sexual rights, government corruption, child and Prostitute in Shaowu protection, policing abuses, and public health.
More generally, Prostitution Prostitute in Shaowu in China: Prostitution in reform-era China Prostitution is a controversial phenomenon and Prostitute in Shaowu of media attention in reform-era China because of its celebrated absence during the Maoist period.
Following its assumption of Prostitute in Shaowu political power inthe CCP embarked upon a series of campaigns that purportedly eradicated the prostitution industry from mainland China by the late s Jeffreys The extraordinary nature of this feat meant that it was and is vaunted as one of the major accomplishments of the communist regime. Prostitution rates remained extremely low during the Maoist period due to the requirements of socialist, centralized planning that entailed the nationalization of industry and the Prostitute in Shaowu of the monetary economy and population mobility.
The Maoist-era system of allocation, in conjunction Prostitute in Shaowu a system of household registration hukoucreated a geographically fixed population that was permanently open to surveillance Dutton and Lee Prostitute in Shaowu Most urban Chinese spent their entire lives in the closed community of a work unit and rural agricultural producers became tied to their place of birth because the state allocated work and major resources, and therefore needed to know the identity and location of its workers.
The comprehensive nature of this system contributed to the absence of visible prostitution in Maoist China by restricting the physical and moral spaces in which such activities could occur. Everyday life in urban China was organized around work and collectivist political movements until the mids Dutton Figures relating to the number of sex sellers in contemporary China vary according to different sources and estimates.
Extrapolating from apprehension statistics, different organizations estimate that between one and 10 million women sell sexual Prostitute in Shaowu in China today. A report by the U. Department of State claims that between 1. Department of State ; see also M. These estimates are problematic, given the inherent difficulties involved in quantifying the Prostitute in Shaowu of GDP constituted by consumption of participants in a black market sector of the economy, on the one hand, and the problem of isolating factors determining the marginal propensity to consume of so variegated a population as female sex sellers, on the other.
Nevertheless, they contribute to general understandings that the prostitution industry is an important component of life in present-day China, despite the implementation of police-led crackdowns against it.
They also include public spaces such as beaches, parks and the unlit spaces beneath overpass bridges Lin Chunqing et al. The prices commanded for engaging in the prostitution transaction vary according to location and the nature of supply and demand. Prices range from as a little as the cost of a simple Prostitute in Shaowu 10 yuan or less to several hundred and even several thousand yuan, depending on whether the transaction is negotiated Prostitute in Shaowu an individual street operator or through intermediaries in low- or high-grade recreational enterprises T.
Prices also vary based on the relative attractiveness of the provider and the socio-economic status of those who demand their services.
In China, as in other parts of the world, prostitution is an ageist, classist, racist, and sexist industry that offers short-term financial gain for those who use their bodies as sexual capital.
Sellers of sexual services are usually women under 40 years of age and especially between 18 and 22 years of age Sun Jin et al. Those who meet certain aesthetic requirements physically attractive, exotic, educated, cultured, and urbane, etc. Buyers of sexual services usually men aged between 20 and 65 years pay different rates depending on where they engage in the prostitution transaction, for what reasons and with whom.
In China, blue-collar workers are associated in stereotypical fashion with the purchase of quick, cheap sex from poor migrant workers in the streets or in low-grade venues, such as foot-washing salons, massage parlours and barber shops, in order to satisfy natural Prostitute in Shaowu urges or to compensate for emotional stresses Lin Chunqing et al.
Originally restricted chiefly to adult heterosexual prostitution, the market for sexual services in China has expanded to include male-male prostitution, female-male prostitution, youth prostitution, and child prostitution. The majority of men who sell male-male sexual services are young, unmarried men between 18 and 24 years Prostitute in Shaowu age Kong As with their female counterparts, they often have moved from poor communities in the Prostitute in Shaowu hinterland to urban and more developed parts of the PRC to look for work and sometimes to study at college or university.
Commonly referred to as money boys, many of these young men reportedly self-identify as heterosexual, but are willing to provide male-male sexual services in exchange for relatively high sums of financial recompense. Others define themselves as bisexual or gay and claim to enjoy experimenting with their Xxx sex in Szeged while earning money Kong At the same time, they express concern Prostitute in Shaowu their triply stigmatized identity as homosexuals, rural migrants and Prostitute in Shaowu sellers, and worry about the future because their ability to earn an income from commercial sex is age-related and hence short term Kong Quick Prostitute in Shaowu negotiated and conducted on the street command between 10 and 30 yuan, sexual services arranged at or Prostitute in Shaowu in a recreational enterprise command between 50 and yuan, and an overnight stay may command 1, yuan Chapman et al.
Customers of money boys are middle-aged men from all walks of life, including private entrepreneurs, bureaucrat-entrepreneurs, police officers, university professors, and foreign nationals Ho Men Prostitute in Shaowu offer commercial sexual services to women — known in colloquial Chinese as yazi ducksafter their female counterparts, ji chickens — allegedly are growing in numbers too.
Youth prostitution is another new and controversial phenomenon in reform-era China. Likewise, high-school students aged between 13 and 18 years have sold sexual services via informal friendship networks to affluent private entrepreneurs and government officials aged between 30 and 50 years in high-grade hotels for fees ranging between 2, and 20, yuan, with virgins commanding especially high prices Jin Yan et al. In Decembera schoolteacher, Zhao Qingmei, was executed following a failed appeal against a conviction for forcing 22 pupils into repeated acts of prostitution.
Prostitution businesses and practices now exist throughout the length and breadth of the PRC. Moreover, sellers and buyers of sex come from all sectors of society, Prostitute in Shaowu a documented growth Prostitute in Shaowu recent years of new phenomena such as male-male Prostitute in Shaowu and youth prostitution. The Criminal Law banned all third-party attempts to profit from the prostitution of others, but it made no explicit reference to the activities of first-party Prostitute in Shaowu in the prostitution transaction — sex sellers and their clients.
Policing authorities handled the visible resurgence of prostitution in the mid s primarily under a system of administrative sanctions and not the criminal code.
During the Maoist period, the formal legal system fell into disrepute as a tool of class-based oppression Prostitute in Shaowu was replaced in part by a system of administrative and Party disciplinary sanctions Prostitute in Shaowu This system was used to police the activities of those deemed to have committed social offences or political errors, but whose criminal liability was not considered sufficient to bring them before the courts.
Article 30 of the Regulations, effective 1 Januarystates that it is forbidden to sell and buy sex, to introduce others into prostitution, and to provide accommodation for the purposes of prostitution. In more serious and repeat cases, policing authorities could detain offenders for rehabilitative education or Prostitute in Shaowu through labour for periods of between six months and two years.
Although new legislation was introduced in the s, policing authorities retained the power to fine and detain first-party participants in the prostitution transaction based on the Regulations until 1 March However, it kept the prostitution transaction under the purview of the system of administrative and Party disciplinary sanctions by stipulating that sellers and buyers of sex should be handled according to Article 30 of the Regulations.
As with the Decision, Article of the Criminal Law aims to restrict the conditions that contribute to the formation of a prostitution industry by introducing a system of controls over personnel in the hospitality and service industry. Article states that managers or employees who take advantage of their work unit to organize, force, introduce, or shelter, others to engage in prostitution shall be convicted and punished in accordance with Articles and Article states that personnel who leak information about prospective police investigations into prostitution activities at their work unit shall be convicted for obstructing the course of justice.
Once again, the revised penal code does not actively criminalize the behaviours of first-party participants in a voluntary prostitution transaction, with the exception of clauses relating to sex with minors and the premeditated spread of STIs Article First-party engagement in voluntary prostitution remains an unlawful, not criminal, act, which policing authorities handle in accordance with the system of administrative sanctions.
However, they give police officials above county level the authority to vet, license and investigate such venues to ensure that they comply with Prostitute in Shaowu law. Policing authorities responded to rising rates of crime in the reform era, including the resurgence of prostitution, gambling and Prostitute in Shaowu, with a strategy known as campaign-style policing Biddulph Prostitute in Shaowu Trevaskes ; Tanner ; Dutton and Lee The campaign process, previously a Maoist tool of continuing class struggle, subsequently was resurrected as a pragmatic tool of policing.
Instead of launching wave after wave of mass mobilization campaigns against political deviation, class enemies and so forth, policing authorities began to target certain types of criminal and proscribed activities, and certain types of persons, places and behaviours, for a limited period of time Tanner Prostitution businesses and practices have been Prostitute in Shaowu by police-led crackdowns since the late s, usually as part of broader campaigns against crime and illegality, but also as part of specialized anti-vice campaigns known as saohuang — literally sweeping away Prostitute in Shaowu yellow, or the pornographic and obscene.
Throughout the s, western-based human rights activists criticized Chinese campaign-style policing for undermining efforts to improve standards of policing professionalism and accountability, by relying on the flexibility of the administrative system rather than the procedural rules that govern the operation of the criminal justice system Human Rights in China Prior to the introduction of the revised Criminal Law inthe launching of a major campaign was often accompanied by Prostitute in Shaowu introduction of harsher legislation designed to facilitate easier arrests, detentions, and sentencing, including the extensive use of capital punishment.
At the same time, huge numbers of people were detained for arbitrary periods in centres that frequently had appalling conditions, based on the former system of administrative sanctions ibid. In addition, centres for the administrative rehabilitation of first-party participants in the prostitution transaction were overcrowded and lacked appropriate funding and personnel Wang Dazhong As a result, many of these centres were unable to provide the services that constituted the theoretical Prostitute in Shaowu for their existence Jeffreys They further claimed the implementation of police-led campaigns was increasingly motivated at the local level by income creation through extortion and the issuing of fines rather than concerns about law-enforcement or abolishing the prostitution industry H.
The Public Security Administrative Punishments Law clarifies and reduces former administrative penalties for first-party engagement in and third-party facilitation of the voluntary prostitution transaction Quanguo renda changwu weiyuanhui Although these provisions may seem harsh in that they allow for the temporary deprivation of personal freedom, they are more lenient and precise than previous rulings.
The Regulations not only empowered the Chinese Prostitute in Shaowu to detain minor prostitution offenders for rehabilitative education for periods of up to two years, but also allowed very little scope for appeal. Controls over less official media and the dissemination of non-political information became more relaxed throughout the s with the expansion of market-based reforms Donald et al.
Then, inthe PRC Government stipulated that state-subsidized newspapers and magazines must earn at least half of their revenue from voluntary subscriptions Hvistendahl In this context, sensationalist news items and tabloid-style formats have proliferated as a means to attract audiences and advertisers Prostitute in Shaowu. At the same time, the expansion of quasi-legal newspapers and magazines has encouraged the proliferation of what Zhao Yuezhi Media coverage of prostitution-related issues in China has evolved in Prostitute in Shaowu that reflect both the growth and spread of the sex industry and the changing role of the media.
Until the mid s, print media discussions of prostitution were limited in number and focused on issues of law and order. Such accounts predominantly itemized the expansion of prostitution controls following the introduction of the Criminal Law. They highlighted police efforts to control the spread of prostitution throughout the hospitality and service industry and to combat the new crime of trafficking in women for forced prostitution. They also focused on the plight of young, rural women who had migrated to developing cities seeking work and who had been tricked into prostitution, often with horrendous consequences Jeffreys b.
However, this did not prevent some journalists from capitalizing on the tragic and sordid details of Prostitute in Shaowu cases, or Prostitute in Shaowu noting the existence of local government Sexy Women Adult Dating in Aigua for a policy of taxing people who provided sexual services in recreational enterprises Jeffreys Scholars have questioned the utility and deterrent effect of campaign-style policing in numerous media formats, arguing that the incidence of crime and prostitution has continued to rise, despite the implementation of police-led campaigns since the s Huang and Liu ; Li Yinhe ; Chen Xiaoshu They have also questioned the legality of policing approaches.
While praised by local Prostitute in Shaowu and some lawyers as a legitimate response to illegality and community objections to prostitution, the same actions were Prostitute in Shaowu by others for violating individual rights to privacy Chen Qingui ; Guo Rui It also includes cases involving the hire and subsequent murder of women-in-prostitution whose bodies were sold to act as ghost brides, that is, to be buried with deceased bachelors in order to keep them company in the after-life Bezlova ; Yu Wei Media coverage of such cases, while exploiting the readership appeal of the sex-crime genre, is remarkable because of its new emphasis on victim vulnerability Jeffreys This emphasis has encouraged arguments to the effect that China should abandon its historical opposition to the prostitution industry in order to provide enhanced legal protections to women who are marginalized socially as sex sellers and therefore second-class citizens Huang and Liu ; Chen Xiaoshu As with rising rates of prostitution, sexual health is a new object of government concern in the reform era.
Through a combination of campaigns involving mass education, the virtual eradication of prostitution, and Prostitute in Shaowu large-scale provision of costly penicillin, the new regime announced to the World Health Organization WHO in that active venereal disease no longer existed in China ibid. Sincethe media promotion of condom use among designated most-at-risk populations, such as sex sellers and their clients, has become an integral part of government-supported strategies to avert a public health crisis in China.
The projects aimed to reduce the potential for STIs-HIV transmission between sellers and buyers of sex and the general population by promoting condom use in per cent of recreational enterprises in a large geographic area, per cent of the time, and by per cent of the people identified as involved in risky sexual behaviours Rojanapithayakorn They were implemented without media publicity initially because of their sensitive nature.
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